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组织行为与领导学

作者:正规代写网  来源:本站  发表时间:2021-10-13  点击:10 cms

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答卷封面

(COVER)

课程名称(Subject):组织行为与领导学

专    业 (Major):Doctor of Business Administration    

姓    名 (Name):    

注意事项(Notes)

1.作业需英文作答提交;

2.请认真对待作业,答题需思路清晰、逻辑分明。


Part A

第一部分

Instructions:

The assignment contributes to 45% of the Grade of the module.

说明:

本部分佔學科成绩的45 %。

Managing Motivation in a Difficult Economy

在困难的经济中的积极性管理


Learning Goals  


In this case, you’ll have an opportunity to assess a motivational program designed to re-energize a troubled company’s workforce. Acting on behalf of the company’s executive board, you’ll evaluate the board’s current strategy based on survey data. You’ll also advise board members about improving the effectiveness of this program based on what you’ve learned about goal setting and motivation in organizations.  


学习目标  

在这个案,你将有机会评估针对振兴陷入困境的公司的员工团队激励计划。代表公司执行董事会行事,你将根据调查数据评估董事会的当前策略。你还将根据你所学有关组织目标设定和动机的认知,为董事会成员提供有关提高该计划有效性的建议。  


Major Topic Areas  

• Changing nature of work

• Diversity and age

• Goal setting

• Organizational downsizing

• Organizational justice  


主要主题领域  

• 工作性质的变化

• 多样性和年龄

• 目标设定

• 组织缩減

• 组织公正  


The Scenario


Morgan-Moe’s drug stores are in trouble. A major regional player in the retail industry, the company has hundreds of stores in the upper Midwest. Unfortunately, a sharp decline in the region’s manufacturing economy has put management in a serious financial bind. Revenues have been consistently dwindling. Customers spend less, and the stores have had to switch their focus to very low-margin commodities, such as milk and generic drugs, rather than the high-margin impulse-buy items that used to be the company’s bread and butter. The firm has had to close quite a few locations, reversing its expansion plans for the first time since it incorporated.


Being that this is uncharted territory for the company, Jim Claussen, vice president for human relations, had been struggling with how to address the issue with employees. As the company’s fortunes worsened, he could see that employees were becoming more and more disaffected.

Their insecurity about their jobs was taking a toll on attitudes. The company’s downsizing was big news, and the employees didn’t like what they were hearing.


Media reports of Morgan-Moe’s store closings have focused on the lack of advance notice or communication from the company’s corporate offices, as well as the lack of severance payments for departing employees. In the absence of official information, rumors and gossip have spread like wildfire among remaining employees. A few angry blogs developed by laid-off employees, like IHateMorganMoe.blogspot.com, have made the morale and public relations picture even worse.


Morgan-Moe is changing in other ways as well. The average age of its workforce is increasing rapidly. A couple of factors have contributed to this shift. First, fewer qualified young people are around because many families have moved south to find jobs. Second, stores have been actively encouraged to hire older workers, such as retirees looking for some supplemental income. Managers are very receptive to these older workers because they are more mature, miss fewer days of work, and do not have child-care responsibilities. They are also often more qualified than younger workers because they have more experience, sometimes in the managerial or executive ranks.


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These older workers have been a great asset to the company in troubled times, but they are especially likely to leave if things get bad. If these older workers start to leave the company, taking their hard-earned experience with them, it seems likely that Morgan-Moe will sink deeper toward bankruptcy.


The System


Claussen wasn’t quite sure how to respond to employees’ sense of hopelessness and fear until a friend gave him a book entitled Man’s Search for Meaning. The book was written by a psychologist named Victor Frankl who survived the concentration camps at Auschwitz. Frankl found that those who had a clear sense of purpose, a reason to live, were more likely to persevere in the face of nearly unspeakable suffering. Something about this book, and its advocacy of finding meaning and direction as a way to triumph over adversity, really stuck with Claussen.

He thought he might be able to apply its lessons to his workforce. He proposed the idea of a new direction for management to the company’s executive committee, and they reluctantly agreed to try his suggestions.  


Over the last 6 months, stores throughout the company have used a performance management system that, as Claussen says, “gets people to buy into the idea of performing so that they can see some real results in their stores. It’s all about seeing that your work serves a broader purpose. I read about how some companies have been sharing store performance information with employees to get them to understand what their jobs really mean and participate in making changes, and I thought that was something we’d be able to do.”  


The HR team came up with five options for the management system. Corporate allowed individual managers to choose the option they thought would work best with their employees so that managers wouldn’t feel too much like a rapid change was being forced on them. Program I is opting out of the new idea, continuing to stay the course and providing employees with little to no information or opportunities for participation. Program II tracks employee absence and sick leave and shares that information with individual employees, giving them feedback about things they can control. Management takes no further action. Program III tracks sales and inventory replacement rates across shifts. As in Program II, information is shared with employees, but without providing employee feedback about absence and sick leave. Program IV, the most comprehensive, tracks the same information as Programs II and III. Managers communicate it in weekly brainstorming sessions, during which employees try to determine what they can do better in the future and make suggestions for improving store performance. Program V keeps the idea of brainstorming but doesn’t provide employees with information about their behavior or company profits.



Since implementing the system, Claussen has spoken with several managers about what motivated them to choose the program they did. Artie Washington, who chose Program IV, said, “I want to have my employees’ input on how to keep the store running smoothly.

Everybody worries about his or her job security in this economy. Letting them know what’s going on and giving them ways to change things keeps them involved.”  


Betty Alvarez couldn’t disagree more. She selected Program I. “I would rather have my employees doing their jobs than going to meetings to talk about doing their jobs. That’s what management is for.” Michael Ostremski, another proponent of Program I, added, “It’s okay for the employees to feel a little uncertain—if they think we’re in the clear, they’ll slack off. If they think we’re in trouble, they’ll give up.”  


Cal Martins also questions the need to provide information to the whole team, but he chose Program II. “A person should know where he or she stands in the job, but they don’t have to know about everyone else. It creates unnecessary tension.”  


This is somewhat similar to Cindy Ang’s reason for picking Program V. “When we have our brainstorming meetings, I learn what they [the employees] think is most pressing, not what some spreadsheet says. It gives me a better feel for what’s going on in my store. Numbers count, of course, but they don’t tell you everything. I was also a little worried that employees would be upset if they saw that we aren’t performing well.”  


Results to Date  


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Claussen is convinced the most elaborate procedure (Program IV) is the most effective, but not everyone in the executive committee is won over by his advocacy. Although they have supported the test implementation of the system because it appears to have relatively low costs, others on the committee want to see results. CEO Jean Masterson has asked for a complete breakdown of the performance of the various stores over the past 4 years. She’s especially interested in seeing how sales figures and turnover rates have been affected by the new program.  


The company has been collecting data in spreadsheets on sales and turnover rates, and it prepared the following report, which also estimates the dollar cost of staff time taken up in each method. These costs are based on the number of hours employees spend working on the program multiplied by their wage rate. Estimates of turnover, profit, and staff time are collected per store. Profit and turnover data include means and standard deviations across locations; profit is net of the monthly time cost. Turnover information refers to the percentage of employees who either quit or are terminated in a month.  


To see if any patterns emerged in managers’ selection of programs, the company calculated relationships between program selection and various attributes of the stores. Program I was selected most frequently by the oldest stores and those in the most economically distressed areas. Programs II and III were selected most frequently by stores in urban areas and in areas where the workforce was younger on average. Programs IV and V were selected most frequently in stores in rural areas, and especially where the workforce is older on average.  


Program Methods # of Stores Average Turnover Weekly Profit per Month Monthly Staff Cost Time

Program 1 Traditional Management 83 Mean=30%

SD=10% Mean=$5,700

SD=$3,000 None

Program 2 Share absence and sick leave 27 Mean=23%

SD=14% Mean=$7,000

SD=$5,800 $1,960

Program 3 Share sales and inventory 35 Mean=37%

SD=20% Mean=$11,000

SD=$2,700 $2,440

Program 4 Share information and brainstorm 67 Mean=17%

SD=1020 Mean=$13,000

SD=$3,400 $3,420

Program 5 Brainstorm without sharing information 87 Mean=21%

SD=12% Mean=$14,000

SD=$2,400 $2,750



Your Assignment  


Your task is to prepare a report for the company’s executive committee on the effectiveness of these programs. Make certain it is in the form of a professional business document. Your audience won’t necessarily know about the organizational principles you’re describing, so make sure you provide detailed explanations that someone in a real business can understand.

 

When you write, make sure you touch on the following points:


1. Consider the five management systems as variables in an experiment. Identify the independent and dependent variables and explain how they are related to one another.

2. Based on the discussion of independent and dependent variables in the textbook, is there anything else you’d like to measure as an outcome?  

3. Look over the data and decide which method of management appears most effective in generating revenues and reducing turnover, and why. Which methods appear least effective, and why?

4. Are there any concerns you have about this data?

a. Does a comparison of the number of stores using each method influence your conclusions at all?

b. Does the fact that managers are selecting the specific program to use (including Program I, which continues the status quo) affect the inferences you can draw about program success?

c. What are the advantages of randomly assigning different conditions to the stores instead of using this self-selection process?

5. How does the changing nature of the workforce and the economy, described in your textbook and in the case, affect your conclusions about how to manage retail employees? Does the participation of a more experienced workforce help or hurt these programs? Why might these programs work differently in an economy that isn’t doing so poorly?

6. Claussen essentially designed the program on his own, with very little research into goal setting and motivation. Based on your textbook, how well has he done? Which parts of the program appear to fit well with research evidence on goal setting? What parts would you change to get more substantial improvements in employee motivation?

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7. Describe the feelings employees might have when these systems are implemented that could help or hinder the program’s success. What advice would you give managers about how to implement the programs so they match the principles of organizational justice described in your textbook?  




-The End-



场景


药店Morgan-Moe陷入困境。该公司是该区零售业的主要参与者,在上中西部拥有数百家商店。不幸的是,该地区制造业经济的急剧下滑使管理层陷入了严重的财务困境。收入一直在下降。顾客花的钱少了,商店不得不把重点转移到利润很低的商品上,例如牛奶和非专利药品,而不是过去利润高的冲动性购买商品,而这些商品以前是公司的生存根本。自成立以来,该公司不得不关闭许多营业地点,这是其首次撤销扩张计划。


由于这是公司的未知领域,人际关系副总裁吉姆·克劳森(Jim Claussen)一直在努力与员工一起解决该问题。随着公司命运的恶化,他可以看到员工变得越来越不满。

他们对工作的不安全感正在损害他们的态度。公司的裁员是个大新闻,员工们不喜欢他们所听到的。


媒体报道Morgan-Moe即将关门的焦点在于公司没有提前通知或沟通,甚至缺乏离职员工的遣散费。在没有官方信息的情况下,谣言和八卦像野火一样在剩余的员工中散布。由被遣散员工发布充满愤怒的博客,例如IHateMorganMoe.blogspot.com,使士气和公共关系状况更加恶化。


Morgan-Moe也在以其他方式发生变化。其员工的平均年龄正在迅速增加。有几个因素促成了这一转变。首先,合格的年轻人较少,因为许多家庭已经移居南部以寻找工作。第二,积极鼓励商店雇用年长的工人,例如退休人员,寻找一些补充性收入。经理们很容易接受这些年长的工人,因为他们比较成熟,教少缺席,并且没有育儿责任。他们也比年轻工人更胜任,因为他们有更多的经验,有时在管理或行政级别。


在困难时期,这些年长的工人是公司的宝贵财富,但如果情况恶化,他们尤其有可能离职。如果这些年长的工人带着他们宝贵的经验开始离开公司,Morgan-Moe很可能会陷入破产的深渊。


系统


直到一位朋友给他写了一本名为《人在寻找意义》的书之前,克劳森不确定如何应对员工的绝望和恐惧感。这本书是由一位名叫维克多·弗兰克尔(Victor Frankl)的心理学家撰写的,他在奥斯威辛集中营中幸存下来。弗兰克尔发现,那些有明确目标感和生活理由的人更有可能在几乎无法形容的痛苦中坚持不懈。这本书倡导寻找意义和方向来战胜逆境的方法对克劳森有着启发。

他认为自己也许可以将其经验教训应用到他的员工队伍中。他向公司执行委员会提出了新的管理方向的想法,他们勉强同意尝试他的建议。


在过去的6个月中,整个公司的商店都使用了绩效管理系统,正如克劳森所说,“使人们完全接受绩效观念,以使他们可以在商店中看到一些实际结果。这完全关乎看到你的工作有更广泛的用途。我读到一些公司如何与员工共享商店绩效信息,以使他们了解其工作的真正意义并参与做出更改,我认为这是我们能够做到的。”


人力资源团队提出了管理系统的五个选项。公司允许经理选择他们认为最适合自己的的选项,这样经理就不会觉得自己被迫进行快速变革。计划I选择退出新想法,继续保持原样,并为员工提供很少甚至没有信息或参与的机会。计划II跟踪员工的缺勤和病假,并与单别员工共享该信息,向他们反馈有关他们可以控制的事情。管理层不采取进一步行动。计划III跟踪各班次的销售和库存替换率。与计划II一样,信息是与员工共享的,但是没有提供员工关于缺勤和病假的反馈。计划IV最全面,与计划II和III所追踪的信息相同。经理们在每周一次的头脑风暴会议上进行交流,在此期间,员工试图确定自己将来可以做的更好的事情,并提出改善店铺绩效的建议。计划V保留了头脑风暴会议集思广益的想法,但没有向员工提供有关其行为或公司利润的信息。



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自实施该系统以来,克劳森与几位经理进行了交谈,探讨了促使他们选择自己所选择的计划的动机。选择计划IV的Artie Washington说:“我想让我的员工就如何保持商店平稳运转提供意见。每个人都担心在这种经济中的工作安全。让他们知道发生了什么,并为他们提供改变事物的方法,可以使他们参与其中。”


贝蒂·阿尔瓦雷斯(Betty Alvarez)完全同意。她选择了计划I。“我希望我的员工胜任工作,而不是去开会讨论他们的工作。这就是管理的目的。” 计划I的另一位支持者迈克尔· 奥斯特雷姆斯基(Michael Ostremski)补充说:“员工可以让员工感到一点不确定性,如果他们认为我们没问题,他们就会懈怠。如果他们认为我们有麻烦,他们会放弃。”


卡尔·马丁斯(Cal Martins)也质疑有必要向整个团队提供信息,但他选择了计划II。“一个人应该知道他或她在工作中所处的位置,但他们不必了解其他所有人。这会造成不必要的紧张。”


这有点类似于辛迪·昂(Cindy Ang)选择计划V的原因。“当我们进行集思广益的会议时,我了解到他们(员工)真正认为最紧迫的事情,而不是某些电子表格所反映的。它使我天能感受到商店中正在发生的事情。数字固然重要,但它们并不能告诉您一切。我也有点担心,如果员工们看到我们表现不佳,就会感到沮丧。”


迄今为止的结果


克劳森深信最详尽的程序(计划IV)是最有效的,但并非执行委员会中的每个人都可以通过他的主张而得益。尽管他们支持该系统的测试实施是因为它的成本相对较低,但委员会的其他成员仍希望看到结果。首席执行官让·马斯特森(Jean Masterson)要求对过去4年中各家商店的业绩进行全面细分。她对查看新计划如何影响销售数字和周转率特别感兴趣。


该公司一直在通过电子表格收集有关销售和周转率的数据,并准备了以下报告,该报告还估计了每种方法所花费的员工时间的美元成本。这些费用是根据员工在该计划上花费的小时数乘以他们的工资率得出的。每个商店收集营业额,利润和员工时间的估计值。利润和营业额数据包括各个地区的均值和标准差;利润是每月时间成本的净额。营业额信息是指一个月内辞职或解雇的员工所占的百分比。


为了查看经理选择程序时是否出现任何模式,该公司计算了程序选择与商店的各种属性之间的关系。最早的商店和经济最困难地区的商店最常选择计划I。方案二和方案三是在城市地区和平均劳动力年轻的地区的商店中选择最频繁的。计划IV和V在乡村地区的商店中被最频繁地选择,尤其是在平均劳动力年龄较大的地区。


程序 方法 门店数量 平均营业额 每月每周利润 每月员工成本时间

程序1 传统管理 83 平均值= 30%

SD = 10% 均值= $ 5,700

SD = $ 3,000 没有

程序2 缺勤和请病假 27 平均值= 23%

SD = 14% 均值= $ 7,000

SD = $ 5,800 $ 1,960

程序3 分享销售和库存 35 平均值= 37%

SD = 20% 均值= $ 11,000

SD = $ 2,700 $ 2,440

程序4 分享信息和头脑风暴 67 均值= 17%

SD = 1020 均值= $ 13,000

SD = $ 3,400 $ 3,420

程序5 不共享信息就集思广益 87 平均值= 21%

SD = 12% 均值= $ 14,000

SD = $ 2,400 $ 2,750



你的作业


你的任务是为公司执行委员会准备有关这些计划有效性的报告。确保它是专业业务文档的形式。你的听众不一定会了解你所描述的组织原则,因此请确保你提供让真实商业世界所能理解的详细说明。


写作时,请确保触及以下几点:


1. 在实验中将五个管理系统视为变量。识别自变量和因变量,并说明它们之间的关系。            

2. 根据教科书中有关自变量和因变量的讨论,你还有什么要衡量的结果吗?              

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3. 查看数据,并确定哪种管理方法在产生收入和减少营业额方面最有效,以及原因。哪些方法最无效,为什么?            

4. 你对此数据有任何担忧吗?            

a.   每种方法对商店数量的比较是否会完全影响你的结论?            

b。经理正在选择要使用的特定程序(包括继续保持现状的程序I)这一事实是否会影响你可以推断出程序成功的推论?            

C。随机向商店分配不同条件而不使用此自选过程有什么好处?            

5. 你的教科书中以及案例中描述的劳动力和经济变化的性质如何影响你关于如何管理零售雇员的结论?经验丰富的员工队伍的参与会对这些计划产生帮助还是损害?在经济状况不那么糟糕的经济中,为什么这些计划会有所不同?            

6. 克劳森基本上是自己设计程序的,很少研究目标设定和动机。根据你的教科书,他做得如何?该计划的哪些部分似乎与目标设定的研究证据相吻合?你将更改哪些部分以获得更大的员工积极性?            

7. 描述员工在实施这些系统时可能会产生的,可能有助于或阻碍该计划成功的感受。对于如何实施计划,使他们与教科书中所述的组织公正原则相匹配,你将向管理人员提供哪些建议?              




-完-


Part B

第二部分

Answer any two questions

   回答任何两个问题



1. As a manager of people, it is inevitable that you will have to deal with conflict issues. In our studies we have identified the need to resolve conflict when it is seen to be counter to the organization’s goals and in some cases, to stimulate conflict to arrive at organizational goals or increase performance. Select any two of the nine conflict-resolution techniques. Explain how each technique could be used to reduce or eliminate conflict. Provide an example scenario for each. Select one of the four conflict-stimulation techniques. Explain how that technique could be used to improve a group’s performance. Provide an example scenario.

(50 marks)



1. 作为人事经理,不可避免地你将不得不处理冲突问题。在我们的研究中,发现當冲突 与组织的目标背道而驰,便有必要解决冲突。在某些情况下,还需要激发冲突以达到组织的目标或提高绩效。选择九种解决冲突技巧中的任何两种,说明如何使用每种技巧来减少或消除冲突。为每种情况提供一个示例方案。选择四种激发冲突技巧的其中之一,说明如何使用该技巧来提高小组的表现。提供示例方案。                                  (50分)



2. Falco Incorporated is a business with 500 employees. The CEO of the company has recently learned, based on employee surveys, that the employees are not very happy with the company. In fact, the CEO is starting to believe that this may be the reason why Faxco is experiencing slower sales and a recent budget crisis that threatens to shut down the company in 3 years if it is not fixed.

You are a consultant and the CEO has asked you to visit the company for a week and analyze what might be going wrong. Here are your notes from the week.

(1) Attended Manager 1’s staff meeting. He has 200 employees working under him. Manager 1 talked about the recent budget problems that Faxco is having. He said, “It’s not like we didn’t know this was coming. The company makes a junky product compared to our competitors, and half the time, I think the manufacturing department is cutting corners.” Manager 1 was overheard telling an employee, “I don’t blame anyone if they are looking for work elsewhere.”

(2) You overheard three employees talking after Manager 1’s staff meeting. Employees are upset about the idea that the manufacturing department might be cutting corners and creating junky products. The company advertises its products as having the finest quality and durability.

(3) You attended Manager 2’s staff meeting. He runs the tech department and has 20 employees. He was very upset with the marketing department. He stated, “Someone over in marketing reported to the CEO that a computer technician from this department was rude to them. I did not even ask who it was that was supposedly being rude. I know we’re all techies in this department together and we don’t behave that way.” He also read an e-mail from a customer who said that someone from the tech department was rude. His response was, “All these customers do is complain. It’s us versus them apparently, so we have to watch out.”


In light of what you learned  about diversity, job satisfaction, and attitudes, please write up a neatly-organized analysis for the CEO.

(50 marks)




#p#分页标题#e#

2. Falco Incorporated是一家拥有500名员工的企业。该公司的首席执行官最近根据调查获悉员工对公司不太满意。实际上,首席执行官开始相信这可能是Faxco销量下降以及最近財政危机的原因。如果该公司不解決,它可能会在3年内倒闭。

你是一名顾问,而CEO已要求你到拜访公司一周,并分析可能出了什么问题。这是你本周的笔记。

(1) 参加了经理1的员工会议。他拥有200名员工。经理1谈到了Faxco最近遇到的財政问题。他说:“我们不是不知道这会发生。与竞争对手相比,公司生产的产品是垃圾产品,而且有一半时间,我认为制造部门在偷工减料。”经理1偷听告诉一位员工:“如果有人在其他地方找工作,我不怪任何人。”

(2) 你听到三名员工在经理1的员工会议后的對话。员工对于制造部门可能偷工减料并制造垃圾产品的想法感到不满。该公司宣传其产品具有最好的质量和耐用性。

(3) 你参加了经理 2的员工会议。他负责技术部门,拥有20名员工。他对市场部很不高兴。他说:“行销人士向CEO报告说,该部门的一名计算机技术员对他们很无礼。我什至没有问那无礼的是谁。我知道我们这个部门的人都是技术人员,我们的行为不是那样。”他还读了一位客户的电子邮件,该客户说技术部门的某人很粗鲁。他的回答是:“所有客户所做的就是投訴。显然是我们与他们对决,所以我们必须提防。”


根据你所学到的关于多样性,工作满意度和态度的知识,请为CEO写出整齐有序的分析。                                                                                             (50分) 

3.You lead a team of marketing professionals. At a recent team meeting, Curtis and Andrea got into an argument in front of you and are no longer speaking to each other. Curtis came to you and complained that Andrea always tries to get all of the attention. Andrea came to you with that same complaint about Curtis after the argument. Recently you and your entire team took the Life Styles Inventory (LSI). Andrea is Conventional while Curtis is Competitive. Your style is Humanistic-Encouraging. You plan to hold a meeting with the three of you. What four specific things will you cover and how will you approach each part of the communication differently based on the LSI results?

(50 marks)



3. 你领导一支营销专家团队。 在最近的一次团队会议上,柯蒂斯和安德里亚在你面前发生了争执,不再互相交谈。 柯蒂斯来找你,抱怨安德里亚总是设法引起所有人的注意。 争执之后,安德里亚也对柯蒂斯提出同样的投诉。 最近,你和你的整个团队进行了生活方式分类(Life Styles Inventory, LSI)。 安德里亚是传统的,而柯蒂斯是竞争的,而你的风格是令人鼓舞。 你计划你们三个人举行会议。 你将涵盖哪四项具体内容,以及如何根据LSI结果不同地处理每部分的沟通?

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